A 500 Years Heritage in İstanbul: The Turkish Glass Industry and Şişecam

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Adnan Çağlayan, President of Türkiye Şişe ve Cam Fabrikaları A.Ş., 11

Önder Küçükerman, 13

GLASS: A SHINING PRODUCT OF A 5000 YEAR OLD INDUSTRY THAT EMERGED FROM THE HEAT OF THE FIRE: Glass Production throughout history as a personal endeavour on the highest level, 14 · Glass, its Characteristics: Transparency, Colour, Brittleness, Heat, Tradition, Secrecy, 15

THE FIRST DAYS OF ANATOLIAN GLASS-MANUFACTURE: The Earliest Glass Produced by Core Moulding, 22. Beads, 23. Hurri-Mittani, 25. Mycenean, Hittite, Urartu, 26. Phrygian, Greek, 27. Roman Period, 27. Byzantine Period, 33. Venetian Glass Manufacture of the 8th Century, 36. Seljuq Glass Manufacture of the l3th Century, 37. Memluke Glass Manufacture, 40. Bohemian and Venetian Glass of the l4th-l5th Centuries, 40

THE FIRST DAYS OF İSTANBUL GLASS MANUFACTURE: 1450: Edirne Palace, 44. Glass in Topkapı Palace, 44. 'Light from Above', 45. Head Windows, 46. 1469: Glassware from the Kitchens of Mehmed the Conqueror, 47. 1522: Glass Grenades, 50. 1550: İstanbul Glass Manufacture, 50. 1550: Süleymaniye Mosque, 50
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERIOD OF OTTOMAN GLASS MANUFACTURE: Guilds and Licenses 54. 'Ehli Hıref', 59. 1550: 'Agricola' and European Glass Manufacture, 59. 1555: Glass in the Palace, 63. Venetian Glassmakers in the l6th and l7th Centuries, 63. Glass Production in the l6th Century, 66. 1560: Prohibition of Imports from Venice, 67. 1582: Glass Furnace on a Float, 67. Glassware from Topkapı Palace, 71. Evliya Çelebi and Glass Manufacture in İstanbul, 71. 1640: Glassware in the Price Control Registers, 75. The European Glass Industry after 1650, 79. 1675: Glassware in the Edirne Festivities, 81. 1682: İstanbul Glass Manufacture, 82. 1689: Glassware in the Palace Kitchens, 82. Glass Production in the l7th and l8th centuries, 82. The Industrial Revolution and Venetian Glass Manufacture, 83. 1716: Glass Imports from Venice, 84
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND GLASS MANUFACTURE: From Palace Workshops to Glass Industry in l8th century Europe, 84. 1700: Bavaria and Bohemian Glass Manufacture, 85. Swedish Glass, 86. 1718: The Tekfur Palace Ceramic Factory, 87. 1731: Count Bonneval, 91. Industrial Districts in İstanbul, 91. 1750: Glass Production in the Vicinity of Tekfur Palace, 94. 1752: The Sofa Pavilion, 95. Glass and 'Mahya', 95. 1757: The Reign of Mustafa III and the Need for Reform, 98. 1758: Festivities and Acrobats, 102. 1774: The Reign of Abdülhamid I, 103
1789-1807: SELIM III AND THE FIRST PERIOD OF BEYKOZ GLASS MANUFACTURE: Selim III: Preparations for Industrialization and Reform, 103. 1789: 'Nizam-ı Cedid' - The New Order, 110. The Diffusion of Bohemian Glass, 111. The Aynalıkavak Pavilion, 114. Beykoz: A New Industrial District, 114. Beykoz Glassware: A Representative of the Industrial Revolution, 115


THE PERIOD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION: 1808: The reign of Mahmud II, 122. 1811: Wages of the Glassmakers, 125. 1838: Commercial Treaty with Britain, 125. 1839: The Reign of Abdülmecid. Reform and Industrialization, 128. 1846: Street Lighting in İstanbul, 129. 1850: New Types of Glass, 132. Moser Glassware, 132. Venetian and Bohemian Glass Manufacture, 133. English Glassware, 137. The 1851 Exhibition and Ottoman Glassware, 137. 1859: Labelled Bottles in İstanbul, 140
GLASS IN DOLMABAHÇE PALACE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GLASS INDUSTRY: Dolmabahçe Palace, 141. French and Italian Glassware, 145. The Crystal Pavilion, 148. The Crystal Staircase, 149. Chandeliers, 149. Mirrors, Candelabra and Cyrstal Fireplaces, 153. The 'Crystal Piano' and Piano Stool, 156
THE SECOND PERIOD OF BEYKOZ GLASS MANUFACTURE: Ahmet Fethi Pasha and Beykoz Glass Manufacture, 166. 1844: The Beykoz Tile and Crystal Factory, 166. 1845: The Glass Factory at Çubuklu, 166. The Character of Beykoz Glassware, 168. Glass Production Techniques of the Period, 168. The Technical Characteristics of Beykoz Glassware 173. 'Çeşmibülbül' and Mediterranean Glassware, 176. 'Çeşmibülbül': the Symbol of an Age 180. How 'Çeşmibülbül' is Made, 181
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: The Paris Exhibition of 1855: Ottoman Glassware and Industrial Developments 188. The Paris Exhibition of 1856, 189. 1861: The Abolition of the 'Gedik' System, 189. 1862: Ottoman Exhibits at the London Exhibition, 189. 1863: The General Ottoman Exhibition in İstanbul, 192. Glazed Balconies and Conservatories, 193. 1867: Abdülaziz in Europe 193


YILDIZ PALACE AND THE INCREASED USE OF GLASS: Art Nouveau Glass, 203. 1876: The Reign of Abdülhamid II, Yıldız Palace and the Collapse of the Ottoman Glass Industry, 203. 1876: Glassware in the Trousseau of Behice Sultan, 208. 1877: The Ottoman-Russian War and the Closure of the Beykoz Tile and Porcelain Factory, 208. 1883: The Foundation of the Academy of Fine Arts, 209. 1890: The Foundation of the Yıldız Porcelain Factory, 212. Ottoman Window Glass Manufacture, 213. 1897: The Completion of the Chalet Pavilion, 216. 1899: Glass and Customs Dues, 216
THE THIRD PERIOD OF BEYKOZ GLASS MANUFACTURE: 1899: 'Fabbrica Vetrame di Constantinople', 217. 1901: Glassmakers and Tax Categories, 220. 1906: Glass in Haydarpaşa Railway Station, 220. 1907: The Bursa Exhibition, 220. 1908: Mehmed V Reşad, 221. 1913: The Use of Glass in İstanbul, 221. 1913-1915: The Ottoman Glass Industry, 224


The End of the Old Beykoz Glass Industry, 228. 1930: The Paşabahçe Distillery, 229. 1935: A Glass Factory in İstanbul, 229. 1934: The Foundation of the Paşabahçe Glass Factory, 232. 1935: Official Opening and First Automatic Production, 236. 27 May 1935: Atatürk's Visit to Paşabahçe, 236. The First Days and the First Products, 237. 'Yalıköy' Sand in Glass Manufacture, 248. 1939: The Second World War, 248. 1943: The Production of Glass, 248
THE l95Os: AUTOMATIC PRODUCTION: 248. 1955: Automatic Production in the Paşabahçe, 249
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 1960s: 1961: The Foundation of the Çayırova Cam San A.Ş., 256. 1967: Topkapı Şişe Sanayii A.Ş., 256. Exports - The Early Years, 257
INNOVATIONS IN THE 1970s: 1971: Beginning of Design at Paşabahçe for the Lisbon International Fair, 261. 1970: Camiş Makina ve Kalıp Sanayii A.Ş., 264. 1971: Cam Elyaf Sanayii A.Ş., 264. Progress and Problems after the 1970's, 265. 1973: Şişecam Becomes a Holding, 265. Foundation of Anadolu Cam Sanayii A.Ş. and its Incorporation in Şişecam, 270. 1975: Rastaş Reform Ambalaj San.ve Tic. A.Ş., 271. 1976: Ferro Döküm Sanayii ve Ticaret A.Ş., 271. 1976: Designs from Paşabahçe, 271. 1976: Şişecam Research Center, 272. The years from İncirköy to the Opening to the World, 272. 1979: New designs from Paşabahçe and the First International Patents, 273
THE 1980s. A PERIOD OF GROWTH: 1981: Trakya Cam Sanayii A.Ş., 273. 1982: New Developments in Şişecam, 276. 1984: Foundation of Caminter in Frankfurt, 280. 1984: Kromsan Krom Bileşikleri Fabrikası, 280. 1985: Şişecam and the 50th Anniversary of its Foundation, 280. 50th Anniversary Greetings, 281. 1986: The Borcam Plant, 282
THE 1990s. A GLOBAL COMPANY: 1992: Şişecam Mirror and Space Design Competition, 288. 1993: Şişecam and Future Plans, 288. 1994: Şişecam's Aim: 'To be Global Second', 289. Şişecam 'Decorative Glass Design', 292. A Strategy for the 2lst Century, 292






This book is dedicated to all those who for thousands of years have been discovering new creative solutions in the design and production of glassware in Anatolia and to all those who have played a part in the development of Turkish glass production


Prof. Önder Küçükerman

I owe a very special debt of gratitude to Adnan Çağlayan, President of Türkiye Sişe ve Cam Fabrikaları A.Ş., 'Şişecam' for his help and assistance in the production of this book, for his contribution of a foreword and for the great interest he has shown in ensuring that the book should be produced in the best possible manner.

For their so kindly providing access to various documents and information I should like to thank the Executive Vice Presidents of Türkiye Şişe ve Cam Fabrikaları A.Ş. Alev Yaraman, Teoman Yenigün and Gülsüm Azeri, Uran Özsoy, retired E.V.P. of the Packaging Business, General Secretary Rüştü Bozkurt, Esat Suvarierol, Marketing and Sales Director of Flat Glass Business, Erkin Saygı, General Manager of Paşabahçe Mağazaları A.Ş., Oktay Altınay, Manager of the Kırklareli Factory, Hülya Sungun, Secretary to the Şişecam President, Tahir Cebecioğlu, Manager of Human Resources of Paşabahçe Factory, Hızır Çelebi, Training Chief of Paşabahçe Factory, Ali Tufan Erdoğan of the Human Resources Department of Paşabahçe Factory, Altay Göker, Advertising Chief of Paşabahçe Cam Sanayii ve Ticaret A.Ş., Oktay Çayman, Ankara Representative, and to Sevil Öz and Perihan Sekban of the Şişecam Documentation and Information Center.
I should also like to express my very particular gratitude to Ekrem Barlas, Marketing and Sales Director of the Glass Packaging Business, and to Selda Beşkurt and Berna Karaağaç of the Public Relations Department for their keen interest and invaluable contributions to the production of this book and the preparation of the historical chronology.

My thanks are also due to my esteemed friend Prof. Mete Ünal, and to my esteemed friends Prof. Dr. Metin Sözen, Cultural and Artistic Advisor to the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Chairman of the Information and Evaluation Committee, and Prof. Dr. Oktay Aslanapa.

For permission to make use of their valuable archives and collections I should like to thank Prof. Tamer Başoğlu, Rector of Mimar Sinan University, Prof. Kemal İskender, Director of Mimar Sinan University Museum of Painting and Sculpture, Assistant Director Nejat Eralp and Managerial Secretary Füsun Hınç, Prof. Haluk Sezgin, Head of the Faculty of Architecture Restoration Department, Associate Prof. Dr. İlgi Yüce Aşkun, Associate Prof. Dr. Oğuz Ceylan, Deputy Associate Prof. Dr. Hale Tokay, Deputy Associate Prof. Dr. Demet Binan, Research Assistants Tülay Çobancaoğlu, Mevlüde Kaptı, Binnur Kıraç and Murat Gül, Archivist Özlem Deniz Aksoy, and, in particular, Prof. Dr. Mehmet Çubuk, Head of Urban and Regional Planning, and Associate Prof. Dr. Güzin Konuk.

For his provision of the various documents included in the work and assistance in my utilisation of the 'Collection of Rare Objects' I should like to thank Hasan Çelikoğlu, Director of Mimar Sinan University Library and Documentation Centre and the experts Şeyhmuz Orta, Dilek Yakut Sert, Nazime Günay and Hakkı Yılmaz.
I should also like to thank the Italian Consulate General in İstanbul for access to sources relating to the old Modiano Glass Factory at Beykoz, to Çelik Gülersoy, President of the Turkish Touring and Automobile Association, and the İstanbul Library for permission to make use of their extremely valuable archives, to the glass expert Mustafa Özbey, who has been of great assistance in providing information on the early days of the Paşabahçe Glass Factory and to Prof. Semavi Eyice, who has been of great help in finding old examples of glassware of the Ottoman period.

My thanks are also due to Alpay Pasinli, Director of the İstanbul Archaeological Museum, for assistance in my work and research in the İstanbul Archaeological Museum, Şeniz Atik, Filiz Çağman, Director of the Topkapı Palace Museum, İsmail Hakkı Celayir, Head of the National Palaces Section of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and to Demet Kurtuluş, Expert in the National Palaces Section of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, for assistance in translating Ottoman documents and Güler Dodur.

Lastly, I should like to express my gratitude to Serdar Tanyeli for photographs taken specially for this book, to my friends in Ring Reklamcılık for their assistance in the design of the work and to Atilla Aksoy for his meticulous work in the preparation and printing of the book.


Adnan Çağlayan,

Türkiye Şişecam Fabrikaları A.Ş., 'Şişecam'

Anatolia occupies a very special place in the history of the glass industry, for it was in Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean that the glass industry first arose, and it was here that the great glass industry of the Roman period produced many of its most valuable products.

As members of the Şişecam community, we are the heirs of a strong and firmly-rooted industrial heritage possessed by very few institutions in the world and are, in a sense, the guardians of a heritage from which we draw our strength.

Archival documents show that since 1450 a large number of glass factories have been established at various dates in the history of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman glass industry which began by Topkapı Palace was to set its stamp on the period represented by the Palace of Dolmabahçe, which might well be regarded as an exhibition of European glass in the 1850s. It was in those years that the workshops producing the famous 'Beykoz' glassware were founded at the village of Beykoz on the Bosphorus. But in spite of all the investment made by the state and private entrepreneurs the industry never achieved a strong, stable position. At the time of the foundation of the Turkish Republic seventy-five years ago the glass industry in this country was represented by only a few small enterprises.

It was during the Republican period that this valuable heritage from the past was to acquire a totally new dimension. In 1934, following a decree issued by the Council of Ministers by which the İşbank was entrusted by the Great Leader Atatürk with the task of founding a Turkish glass industry, the foundations of the first glass factory in the country was laid at Paşabahçe. Since that time, the Turkish glass industry has shown a continuous development, finally attaining a global position in the industry.

The book offers a history of the evolution of the glass industry from its beginning thousands of years ago in Anatolia to the present day, concentrating more particularly on its development in and around İstanbul over the last 500 years. It is intended to serve as a means by which the legacy left by the technical and artistic progress of the glass industry, one of the oldest branches in the Anatolian industrial heritage, can be passed on to future generations. The book traces the foundation and development of the many historical initiatives that led to the position occupied by the Turkish industry at the present day, and the fact that the examples of antique glassware presented in this book are chosen from the exhibits preserved in the Şişecam Museum of Glassware is, for us, of particular significance insofar as it reveals our sense of responsibility for the preservation of this valuable legacy.

I should like to take this opportunity of expressing the deepest gratitude on behalf of the Şişecam Group and myself to Prof. Önder Küçükerman, the author of the work, who prepared the book for the press with the most meticulous care and worked on it continuously and indefatigably from the begining to the end, and Atilla Aksoy, who was responsible for its production.


Prof. Önder Küçükerman

In this book you can follow first the story of several thousands of years of the Anatolian glass industry, then of the last 500 years of the İstanbul glass industry which forms the last link in this tradition and then, finally, the story of 'Şişecam', a further development of the Turkish glass industry, which has endowed it with a trade-name of global significance.

Regarded from this point of view, the Palaces of Topkapı, Dolmabahçe and Yıldız, together with the very fine buildings attached to them, constitute an exhibition of the work of the master glass-workers over a period of 500 years.

These three palaces are, in a sense, living symbols of three different periods in the history of the glass industry in the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, it was as if a continuous rivalry existed between the great architectural monuments of the Ottoman era and the glazed windows with which they were adorned. In these buildings, the architect would strive to 'cover a certain space, while the glass craftsmen strove to illuminate the space thus enclosed in the most effective manner'.

These windows, which were used over the centuries in all the most important and architecturally imposing buildings in almost all the towns and cities of the Ottoman Empire, and in İstanbul in particular, constitute what might be regarded as an overview of the changes undergone by the glass industry over the last 500 years.

I wonder how many people realise how many years' experience was required for the glass now used in everyday life to be transformed into an industrial product. The small factory that began operations in 1935 by a green bay on the Bosphorus not far from Paşabahçe was later transformed into a huge industrial plant. Şişecam now occupies a position very different from that occupied when the old glass factory at Paşabahçe, many of whose founders and first workers are now no longer with us, first entered into operation.
This plant actually constitutes the last centre of traditional İstanbul glass manufacture. The technology employed and the high quality of the ware produced have led to the creation of a globally recognised trade mark, while at the same time continuing a 200 years' tradition first founded on the shores of the Bosphorus.
This book aims to describe the process by which the Paşabahçe Glass Industry, by its adoption and revitalisation of the great industrial tradition that had continued for 500 years in İstanbul, was transformed into 'Şişecam'.

July 1998 İstanbul

A 500 Years Heritage in İstanbul: The Turkish Glass Industry and Şişecam A 500 Years Heritage in İstanbul: The Turkish Glass Industry and Şişecam 9789757028048 A 500 Years Heritage in İstanbul: The Turkish Glass Industry and Şişecam